BGA Soldering is also known as Ball Grid Array Soldering, which is becoming one of the most amazing alternatives of packaging for high input and output devices at present in the industry. It has brought various advantages over other similar packaging techniques. As the need for levels of integration is increasing to unparalleled levels the need for integrated circuits with a huge number of pins and gates is also increasing with every passing day.
Due to this high level of integrity and more use of pins and gates in the system, there was a higher need to build a package that can be more convenient to use for the manufacturers or technicians in the best possible way. Even more, the package has to be more robust and reliable and would pose a higher number of pins. It should not only be able to bring improvement in the performance as well as it must work to reduce the size of the package and its thickness in the best possible way. Well, this is the point where BGA Soldering came into action. BGA soldering packages have been developed into various classifications after huge research and upgrading carried out by various companies.
In this guide, we explain the entire information regarding BGA Soldering, which helps you to know why BGA has the ability to become a perfect pick for an effective balance between cost and performance in the best possible way. So, without any further delay, let’s start now.
What Is BGA
BGA is a unique type of surface-mount packaging, which is being used for integrated circuits where electronic components of SMD are affixed and mounted on the SMT printed circuit board’s surface. BGA is featuring leads of ball shape which are being distributed in arrays at the package’s bottom. And the ball array is actually getting its name because it is a metal or alloy ball array which is arranged in a grid.
BGA packages are being used to mount devices on a permanent basis. It has the ability to provide more interconnection pins in which you can put flat or dual in-line packages. The pins which are being used in this technology are solder balls that are arranged in a pattern (usually a grid-like pattern) on the package’s undersurface. This is being done to increase the area for connections instead of just the periphery. Most interestingly, with BGA soldering, you can get the benefit to use the entire bottom surface of the device instead of using the perimeter only. However, when it comes to soldering a BGA package in a more successful way requires more precise control and is normally done with automated processes.
This is a technique that is being used in various electronic products to mount different integrated circuits such as FPGAs, WiFi chips, and FPGAs, etc. Even more, these packages are also being used in RAM devices, PC Chipsets, and Microcontrollers.
How Does BGA Soldering Work
In the initial stages, the BGA technology was a matter of concern. People were not sure about their reliability and soldering. It is because in BGA soldering the pads are normally under the device and are quite invisible. Well, to make sure that you are going on the right path, it is highly important to know the right soldering process.
At present, the BGA soldering techniques are properly tried and tested to ensure their reliability in the best possible way. However, when it comes to solder BGA packages, then reflow soldering is the most effective and common technique which is being used for this.
This is because this can bring the entire PCB assembly to a fixed temperature in order to melt the solder balls which are available under the BGA components. For every BGA soldering, the solder balls are containing a controlled solder amount. When the BGA package and solder balls are placed in a reflow oven, it will become hot and melt the solder. While the surface tension helps the molten solder in holding the package with the right alignment.
However, it is highly important to take care of soldering temperature and solder alloy so that it could not melt completely and can manage to stay in semi-solid form. It is also important to keep the solder balls separated from each other to avoid causing any bridging result in the best possible way.
How to Inspect BGA Soldering Joints?
As it is a well-known fact that SMT and BGA inspection is one of the hardest jobs to handle more effectively. It is because inspecting BFGA joints is quite difficult because the solder lies under the BGA package and is invisible. However, the only way in which you can test the BGA solder points satisfactorily is through X-Ray inspection. It is because X-Rays have the ability to help you to see the joints lying under the BGA package and can provide help in the process of inspection in a more effective way.
Types of BGA Soldering Packages
Here are some of the most important types of BGA packages that are being used more commonly:
MAPBGA stands for “Moulded Array Process Ball Grid Array”. These BGA packages are aimed at devices ranging from low performance to medium performance for which packaging with ease of surface mounting and low inductance is required. MAPBGA Packages can provide low-cost solutions with a high level of reliability and a small footprint.
PBGA stands for “Plastic Ball Grid Array”. A package that is designed for devices ranging from medium to high performance in which ease of surface mounting, low inductance, relatively low cost, and maintaining higher levels of reliability are required. This package also contains some extra copper layers which will help in enabling higher levels of power dissipation to be handled.
TBGA stands for “Tape Ball Grid Array”. This is one of the most common BGA packages which is being used in applications in which higher thermal performance is required. This BGA package is an effective medium to higher-end solution for these applications without the use of any external heatsink.
TEPBGA stands for “Thermally Enhanced Plastic Ball Grid Array”. This package is capable of providing much higher levels of heat dissipation. In the substrate, thick copper planes are being used to draw heat to the customer board from the die in a more effective way.
As the name of this package is indicating these are the packages that are smaller as compared to the standard BGA packages. There exist 3 different pitches that are predominant in the industry, which are 0.65mm, 0.75mm, and 0.8mm.
PoP stands for “Package on Package”. This type of BGA package is being used in applications where space is the real concern. It is because this BGA package can allow stacking a memory package on the base package top with ease.
To meet a different range of requirements for different types of tools and assembly techniques, these various BGA variants have been developed to make the processes easier and more convenient in the best possible way.
Advantages of BGA Soldering
The Printed Circuit Board which is being used in the electronic gadgets and devices of the present day is compactly populated with multiple electronic components. This is a vital reality with the increase in the quantity of the electronic components on the printed circuit board the size of the circuit board will also increase. However, to squeeze the size of the printed circuit board, BGA and SMDs packages are being used at present.
It is because both of these packages are slimmer and smaller in size and contain a very smaller space on the printed circuit board. However, when it comes to the use of BGA packages in the electronic components of the present time then it is highly important for you to know the benefits which are associated with these packages.
Well, here are there major advantages of BGA packages that are important for you to know in this regard. So, have a look at the information given below:
BGA soldering packages come with High density
The BGA is one of the most effective solutions which is designed to resolve the issue of creating a miniature package for an effective integrated circuit containing plenty of pins. Packages of dual-in-line surface mount and Pin grid arrays are being produced with hundreds of pins by decreasing the space between these pins.
Although this was being used to bring high-density levels, it makes the process of soldering pins quite difficult to manage. It is because as the space between the pins was decreasing the risk of accidentally bridging head-to-head pins was increasing. However, the BGA soldering packages are a better solution to this problem.
A more amazing benefit of BGA packages is the decreased thermal resistance between the PCB and the package. This can allow the heat generated inside the package with an integrated circuit for better flow. Even more, it will also prevent the chips from overheating in the best possible way.
Well, the shorted electrical conductor means lower inductance. Inductance is a property that can cause signals’ unwanted distortion in electronic circuits at high speed. As the BGA contains a short distance between PCB and package, it contains lower lead inductance and will give better performance to the pinned devices.
BGA is allowing efficient use of the space of the Printed Circuit Board along with improvement in both electrical and thermal performance. Even more, the decreased package thickness is one of the most amazing benefits which is making this technology more and more popular with every passing day.
Disadvantages of BGA Technology
As with other technologies, BGA is also containing some disadvantages. So, here are the drawbacks of BGA that you must know:
BGA inspection requires a complex technique
Once the package has been soldered into its place then it would be difficult to find the fault occurring in it. It is because these packages come with a higher level of density which can make it quite difficult to find out the problems.
Circuit development is difficult to handle
When it comes to the BGA circuit development then it is quite difficult to handle the circuits more effectively. BGA packages are more sensitive to humidity and can cost higher in circuit development.
Lack of compliance
The most important disadvantage of BGAs is solder balls are unable to flex as the longer leads can. Therefore, these are not complaints mechanically. The predominant use of lead-free solder alloy assemblies is bringing some challenges including “pad cratering” problems, soldering phenomenon, and decreased reliability as compared to lead-based solders.
As a PCB manufacturing and assembly expert, MOKO Technology specializes in BGA technology and provides BGA PCB assembly services to customers in different industries such as automotive, medical, and electronics for about 20 years. If you are interested in BGA or would like to start your project, please contact us today.